Writer's intention, meaning IRRELEVANT in libel; Meaning of words controls

In libel cases, the question is not what the writer of the libelous material means, but what the words used by him mean. Here, the defamatory character of the words used by the petitioners is shown by the very recitals thereof in the questioned article. (Figueroa vs. People, G.R. No. 159813, 09 August 2006)

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