Rights under the Intellectual Property Code


[1] Copyright;
[2] Related Rights of copyright;

Copyright refers to the legal right of the owner of intellectual property. In simpler terms, copyright is the right to copy. This means that the original creators of products and anyone they give authorization to are the only ones with the exclusive right to reproduce the work. (Copyright Definition - Investopedia. www.investopedia.com) Copyright is the exclusive right given to the creator of a creative work to reproduce the work, usually for a limited time. The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical form. (Copyright. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. en.wikipedia.org)

[3] Trademarks and Service Marks;

Trademarks and service marks are two versions of a kind of intellectual property - knowledge property. The assert your ownership of these marks, logos, and slogans, and they help you protect them from being stolen.  Most businesses have some kind of identification that makes their business stand out, both for advertising purposes and for general business purposes. These identifiers are trademarks or service marks. (Murray, 2019. Trademarks and Service Marks - What's the Difference? July 15, 2019. www.thebalancesmb.com)

Both trademarks and service marks are used in commerce. A trademark is a word, phrase, symbol, and/or design that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods of one party from those of others. A service mark (or servicemark) is a word, phrase, symbol, and/or design that identifies and distinguishes the source of a service rather than goods. The term "trademark" is often used generally to refer collectively to both trademarks and service marks. (TOIKKA LAW GROUP LLP, 2018. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRADEMARKS AND SERVICE MARKS. January 5, 2018. www.toikkalawgroup.com)

[4] Geographical Indications;

A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country). The use of a geographical indication, as a type of indication of source, acts as a certification that the product possesses certain qualities, is made according to traditional methods, or enjoys a certain reputation, due to its geographical origin. Appellation of origin is a subtype of geographical indication where quality, method and reputation of a product strictly originate from the delineated area defined under its intellectual property right registration. (Geographical indication. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographical_indication)

[5] Industrial Designs;

What is an industrial design? In a legal sense, an industrial design constitutes the ornamental or aesthetic aspect of an article. An industrial design may consist of three dimensional features, such as the shape of an article, or two dimensional features, such as patterns, lines or color. (WIPO. Frequently Asked Questions: Industrial Designs. www.wipo.int)An industrial design right is an intellectual property right that protects the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian. An industrial design consists of the creation of a shape, configuration or composition of pattern or color, or combination of pattern and color in three-dimensional form containing aesthetic value. An industrial design can be a two- or three-dimensional pattern used to produce a product, industrial commodity or handicraft. (Industrial design right. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_design_right)

[6] Patents;

A patent is a form of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, selling and importing an invention for a limited period of years, in exchange for publishing an enabling public disclosure of the invention. (Patent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent)

A patent is a right granted to an inventor by the federal government that permits the inventor to exclude others from making, selling or using the invention for a period of time. The patent system is designed to encourage inventions that are unique and useful to society. (FindLaw. What Is a Patent? smallbusiness.findlaw.com)

[7] Layout-Designs (Topographies) of Integrated Circuits (Section 4, Republic Act No. 8293); and

Layout designs (topographies) of integrated circuits are a three-dimensional arrangement of elements forming an integrated circuit intended for manufacturing. This arrangement and ordering of elements follows from the electronic function that the integrated circuit is to perform. (www.inapi.cl)

In modern technology, integrated circuits are essential elements for a wide range of electrical products, including articles of everyday use, such as watches, television sets, washing machines, and cars, as well as sophisticated computers, smart phones, and other digital devices. Developing innovative layout designs of integrated circuits is essential for the production of ever-smaller digital devices with more functions. While the creation of a new layout-design is usually the result of an enormous investment, both in financial terms and in terms of the time required from highly qualified experts, the copying of such a layout-design may cost only a fraction of the original investment. In order to prevent unauthorized copying of layout designs and to provide incentives for investing in this field, the layout design (topography) of integrated circuits is protected under a sui generis intellectual property system. (www.wipo.int)

[8] Protection of Undisclosed Information (TRIPS Agreement).

Undisclosed information refers to information which is secret and has commercial value because it is secret. Undisclosed information, or 'trade secrets', is protected in the TRIPs Agreement under the framework or discipline of unfair competition. (apps.who.int)

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