Escalation clauses in contracts may be barred or waived

In the case at bar, the loan was perfected on July 20, 1983. PD. No. 116 became effective on January 29, 1973. CB Circular No. 416 was issued on July 29, 1974. CB Circ. 504 was issued February 6, 1976. CB Circ. 706 was issued December 1, 1979. CB Circ. 905, lifting any interest rate ceiling prescribed under or pursuant to the Usury Law, as amended, was promulgated in 1982. These and other relevant CB issuances had already come into existence prior to the perfection of the housing loan agreement and mortgage contract, and thus it may be said that these regulations had been taken into consideration by the contracting parties when they first entered into their loan contract. In light of the CB issuances in force at that time, respondent bank was fully aware that it could have imposed an interest rate higher than 9% per annum rate for the housing loans of its employees, but it did not. In the subject loan, the respondent bank knowingly agreed that the interest rate on petitioner's loan shall remain at 9% p.a. unless a CB issuance is passed authorizing an increase (or decrease) in the rate on such employee loans and the Provident Fund Board Trustees acts accordingly. Thus, as far as the parties were concerned, all other onerous factors, such as employee resignations, which could have been used to trigger an application of the escalation clause were considered barred or waived. If the intention were otherwise, they - especially respondent bank - should have included such factors in their loan agreement. [G.R. No. 101771. December 17, 1996]