Mere presence in the crime scene CANNOT establish conspiracy

Conspiracy may be inferred from the joint and simultaneous acts of several accused aimed at a common purpose. Their mere presence in the crime scene, absent other proof to support the allegation of conspiracy, cannot be considered an indication of their being conspirators. Nor can relationship with Rogelio (one of the accused) and their carrying wooden sticks be considered as badges of conspiracy. The doubt in this case should be resolved in favor of the accused-appellants. [G.R. No. 118079. December 24, 1996]