Circumstantial evidence sufficient to convict if... (Elements)

Although the evidence in the instant case is largely circumstantial, it is sufficient for conviction as it meets the following requirements: (a) There is more than one circumstance; (b) The facts from which the inferences are derived are proven; and (c) The combination of all the circumstances is such as to produce a conviction beyond reasonable doubt. Circumstantial evidence is evidence of circumstances which are strong enough to cast suspicion upon the defendant and which are sufficiently strong to overcome the presumption of innocence, and to exclude every hypothesis except that of the guilt of the defendant. [G.R. No. 110109. November 21, 1996]