To overcome presumption of innocence, proof beyond reasonable doubt

A conviction in a criminal case must rest on nothing less than a moral certainty of guilt. Without the positive identification of appellants, the evidence of the prosecution is not sufficient to overcome the presumption of innocence guaranteed by the Bill of Rights to them. While admittedly the alibi of appellants may be assailable, the evidence of the prosecution is probatively low in substance and evidentially barred in part. The prosecution cannot use the weakness of the defense to enhance its case; it must rely on the strength of its own evidence. In fact, alibi need not be inquired into where the prosecutions evidence is weak. It would not even have been necessary to stress that every reasonable doubt in criminal cases must be resolved in favor of the accused. The requirement of proof beyond reasonable doubt calls for moral certainty of guilt. [G.R. No. 119005. December 2, 1996]

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