20 Important Terms in Labor Relations

The following are twenty (20) bar-area terms and phrases that are important in the study of labor relations law in labor law. Labor relations is one of the two (2) broadest subjects in labor law.

[1] "Commission" means the National Labor Relations Commission or any of its divisions, as the case may be, as provided under this Code.

[2] "Bureau" means the Bureau of Labor Relations and/or the Labor Relations Divisions in the regional offices established under Presidential Decree No. 1, in the Department of Labor.

[3] "Board" means the National Conciliation and Mediation Board established under Executive Order No. 126.

[4] "Council" means the Tripartite Voluntary Arbitration Advisory Council established under Executive Order No. 126, as amended.

[5] "Employer" includes any person acting in the interest of an employer, directly or indirectly. The term shall not include any labor organization or any of its officers or agents except when acting as employer.

[6] "Employee" includes any person in the employ of an employer. The term shall not be limited to the employees of a particular employer, unless the Code so explicitly states. It shall include any individual whose work has ceased as a result of or in connection with any current labor dispute or because of any unfair labor practice if he has not obtained any other substantially equivalent and regular employment.

[8] "Labor organization" means any union or association of employees which exists in whole or in part for the purpose of collective bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning terms and conditions of employment.

[9] "Legitimate labor organization" means any labor organization duly registered with the Department of Labor and Employment, and includes any branch or local thereof.

[10] "Company union" means any labor organization whose formation, function or administration has been assisted by any act defined as unfair labor practice by this Code. [11] "Bargaining representative" means a legitimate labor organization whether or not employed by the employer.

[12] "Unfair labor practice" means any unfair labor practice as expressly defined by the Code.

[13] "Labor dispute" includes any controversy or matter concerning terms and conditions of employment or the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing or arranging the terms and conditions of employment, regardless of whether the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee.

[14] "Managerial employee" is one who is vested with the powers or prerogatives to lay down and execute management policies and/or to hire, transfer, suspend, lay-off, recall, discharge, assign or  discipline employees. Supervisory employees are those who, in the interest of the employer, effectively recommend such managerial actions if the exercise of such authority is not merely routinary or clerical in nature but requires the use of independent judgment. All employees not falling within any of the above definitions are considered rank-and-file employees for purposes of this Book.

[15] "Voluntary Arbitrator" means any person accredited by the Board as such or any person named or designated in the Collective Bargaining Agreement by the parties to act as their Voluntary Arbitrator, or one chosen with or without the assistance of the National Conciliation and Mediation Board, pursuant to a selection procedure agreed upon in the Collective Bargaining Agreement, or any official that may be authorized by the Secretary of Labor and Employment to act as Voluntary Arbitrator upon the written request and agreement of the parties to a labor dispute.

[16] "Strike" means any temporary stoppage of work by the concerted action of employees as a result of an industrial or labor dispute.

[17] "Lockout" means any temporary refusal of an employer to furnish work as a result of an industrial or labor dispute.

[18] "Internal union dispute" includes all disputes or grievances arising from any violation of or disagreement over any provision of the constitution and by-laws of a union, including any violation of the rights and conditions of union membership provided for in this Code.

[19] "Strike-breaker" means any person who obstructs, impedes, or interferes with by force, violence, coercion, threats, or intimidation any peaceful picketing affecting wages, hours or conditions of work or in the exercise of the right of selforganization or collective bargaining.

[20] "Strike area" means the establishment, warehouses, depots, plants or offices, including the sites or premises used as runaway shops, of the employer struck against, as well as the immediate vicinity actually used by picketing strikers in moving to and fro before all points of entrance to and exit from said establishment. (As amended by Section 4, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989)