Before whom may depositions be taken? Within the Philippines

Deposition can be taken within or without the Philippines. If within the Philippines, deposition may be taken before the following persons:

[1] Judge; or
[2] Notary public (Rule 23, Sec. 10,) ; or
[3] Any person authorized to administer oaths, as stipulated by the parties in writing. (Rule 23, Sec. 14)

A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and, typically, in an open court. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, and then issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might also be an examining magistrate. SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judge. "What Does It Take to Be a Judge? Job Description and Career Profile". thebalance.com. Archived from the original on 30 September 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
A notary public (or notary or public notary) of the common law is a public officer constituted by law to serve the public in non-contentious matters usually concerned with estates, deeds, powers-of-attorney, and foreign and international business. A notary's main functions are to administer oaths and affirmations, take affidavits and statutory declarations, witness and authenticate the execution of certain classes of documents, take acknowledgments of deeds and other conveyances, protest notes and bills of exchange, provide notice of foreign drafts, prepare marine or ship's protests in cases of damage, provide exemplifications and notarial copies, and perform certain other official acts depending on the jurisdiction. SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notary_public. "Notaries Public", Montgomery County, Alabama Probate Judge: [1], retrieved on 30 January 2018. Archived 13 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine.

Notarization is not an empty, meaningless routinary act. It is invested with substantive public interest. The notarization by a notary public converts a private document into a public document, making it admissible in evidence without further proof of its authenticity. A notarial document is, by law, entitled to full faith and credit upon its face. A notary public must observe with utmost care the basic requirements in the performance of their duties; otherwise, the public’s confidence in the integrity of the document would be undermined. (A.C. No. 6649; June 21, 2005)

The following officers have general authority to administer oaths, to wit: "President; Vice-President; Members and Secretaries of both Houses of the Congress; Members of the Judiciary; Secretaries of Departments; provincial governors and lieutenant-governors; city mayors; municipal mayors; bureau directors; regional directors; clerks of courts; registrars of deeds; and other civilian officers in the Philippine public service whose appointments are vested in the President of the Philippines and are subject to confirmation by the Commission of Appointments; all other constitutional officers; and notaries public. A person who by authority of law shall serve in the capacity of the officers mentioned above shall possess the same power." (Section 21 of the Revised Administrative Code)

Officers Authorized to Administer Oath. - The following officers have general authority to administer oaths: President; Vice-President; Members and Secretaries of both Houses of the Congress; Members of the Judiciary; Secretaries of Departments; provincial governors and lieutenant-governors; city mayors; municipal mayors; bureau directors; regional directors; clerks of courts; registrars of deeds; other civilian officers in the public service of the government of the Philippines whose appointments are vested in the President and are subject to confirmation by the Commission on Appointments; all other constitutional officers; and notaries public." (Section 41 of the Administrative Code of 1987)

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