Close, proximate, causal connection; agent's commission

In an earlier case, this Court ruled that when there is a close, proximate and causal connection between the agent's efforts and labor and the principal's sale of his property, the agent is entitled to a commission. We agree with respondent Court that the City of Manila ultimately became the purchaser of petitioner's property mainly through the efforts of private respondent. Without discounting the fact that when Municipal Ordinance No. 6603 was signed by the City Mayor on May 17, 1968, private respondent's authority had already expired, it is to be noted that the ordinance was approved on April 26, 1968 when private respondent's authorization was still in force. Moreover, the approval by the City Mayor came only three days after the expiration of private respondent's authority. It is also worth emphasizing that from the records, the only party given a written authority by petitioner to negotiate the sale from July 5, 1966 to May 14, 1968 was private respondent. (G.R. No. 94753. April 7, 1993)