Principle of uniformity of evidence

As a general rule, rules of evidence shall be the same in all courts and in all trials and hearings. However, by way of exception, law, the Rules, Supreme Court issuance and pieces of jurisprudence may provide a different treatments regarding evidence.

For example, the 1987 Constitution provides a law on evidence regarding proof beyond reasonable doubt in case of conviction of crimes and regarding presumption of innocence. The Supreme Court has also issued special rules (e.g. Rules on DNA Evidence) and decisions (e.g. Star Two v. Ko) that lay down other guidelines on evidence.