Re: Grandfather Rule (Records of the 1986 Constitutional Commission)

The emphasized portion of Sec. 2 which focuses on the State entering into different types of agreements for the exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources with entities who are deemed Filipino due to 60 percent ownership of capital is pertinent to this case, since the issues are centered on the utilization of our country’s natural resources or specifically, mining. Thus, there is a need to ascertain the nationality of petitioners since, as the Constitution so provides, such agreements are only allowed corporations or associations "at least 60 percent of such capital is owned by such citizens." The deliberations in the Records of the 1986 Constitutional Commission shed light on how a citizenship of a corporation will be determined:

Mr. BENNAGEN: Did I hear right that the Chairman’s interpretation of an independent national economy is freedom from undue foreign control? What is the meaning of undue foreign control?

MR. VILLEGAS: Undue foreign control is foreign control which sacrifices national sovereignty and the welfare of the Filipino in the economic sphere.

MR. BENNAGEN: Why does it have to be qualified still with the word "undue"? Why not simply freedom from foreign control? I think that is the meaning of independence, because as phrased, it still allows for foreign control.

MR. VILLEGAS: It will now depend on the interpretation because if, for example, we retain the 60/40 possibility in the cultivation of natural resources, 40 percent involves some control; not total control, but some control.

MR. BENNAGEN: In any case, I think in due time we will propose some amendments.

MR. VILLEGAS: Yes. But we will be open to improvement of the phraseology.


Thank you, Mr. Vice-President.

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MR. NOLLEDO: In Sections 3, 9 and 15, the Committee stated local or Filipino equity and foreign equity; namely, 60-40 in Section 3, 60-40 in Section 9, and 2/3-1/3 in Section 15.

MR. VILLEGAS: That is right.

MR. NOLLEDO: In teaching law, we are always faced with the question: ‘Where do we base the equity requirement, is it on the authorized capital stock, on the subscribed capital stock, or on the paid-up capital stock of a corporation’? Will the Committee please enlighten me on this?

MR. VILLEGAS: We have just had a long discussion with the members of the team from the UP Law Center who provided us with a draft. The phrase that is contained here which we adopted from the UP draft is ‘60 percent of the voting stock.’

MR. NOLLEDO: That must be based on the subscribed capital stock, because unless declared delinquent, unpaid capital stock shall be entitled to vote.

MR. VILLEGAS: That is right.

MR. NOLLEDO: Thank you.

With respect to an investment by one corporation in another corporation, say, a corporation with 60-40 percent equity invests in another corporation which is permitted by the Corporation Code, does the Committee adopt the grandfather rule?

MR. VILLEGAS: Yes, that is the understanding of the Committee.

MR. NOLLEDO: Therefore, we need additional Filipino capital?

MR. VILLEGAS: Yes. (G.R. No. 195580. April 21, 2014)