13 "ten-year" rules in the Civil Code


All provisions below are taken from the Civil Code of the Philippines. The Civil Code of the Philippines is the product of the codification of private law in the Philippines. It is the general law that governs family and property relations in the Philippines. It was enacted in 1950, and remains in force to date with some significant amendments. SOURCE: Civil Code of the Philippines. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_Code_of_the_Philippines

These provisions are scattered all over the Civil Code from the law on presumptive death to the law on credit transactions. These 13 "ten-year" rules are incorporated in 13 provisions although Article 2071 mentions the term "ten years" twice.

Article 390. After an absence of seven years, it being unknown whether or not the absentee still lives, he shall be presumed dead for all purposes, except for those of succession.

The absentee shall not be presumed dead for the purpose of opening his succession till after an absence of ten years. If he disappeared after the age of seventy-five years, an absence of five years shall be sufficient in order that his succession may be opened.

Article 494. No co-owner shall be obliged to remain in the co-ownership. Each co-owner may demand at any time the partition of the thing owned in common, insofar as his share is concerned.

Nevertheless, an agreement to keep the thing undivided for a certain period of time, not exceeding ten years, shall be valid. This term may be extended by a new agreement.

A donor or testator may prohibit partition for a period which shall not exceed twenty years.

Neither shall there be any partition when it is prohibited by law.

No prescription shall run in favor of a co-owner or co-heir against his co-owners or co-heirs so long as he expressly or impliedly recognizes the co-ownership.

Article 504. The use of public waters is acquired: (1) By administrative concession; (2) By prescription for ten years.

Article 555. A possessor may lose his possession:

(1) By the abandonment of the thing;
(2) By an assignment made to another either by onerous or gratuitous title;
(3) By the destruction or total loss of the thing, or because it goes out of commerce;
(4) By the possession of another, subject to the provisions of article 537, if the new possession has lasted longer than one year. But the real right of possession is not lost till after the lapse of ten years.

Article 620. Continuous and apparent easements are acquired either by virtue of a title or by prescription of ten years.

Article 631. Easements are extinguished:

(1) By merger in the same person of the ownership of the dominant and servient estates;
(2) By nonuser for ten years; with respect to discontinuous easements, this period shall be computed from the day on which they ceased to be used; and, with respect to continuous easements, from the day on which an act contrary to the same took place; (3) When either or both of the estates fall into such condition that the easement cannot be used; but it shall revive if the subsequent condition of the estates or either of them should again permit its use, unless when the use becomes possible, sufficient time for prescription has elapsed, in accordance with the provisions of the preceding number;
(4) By the expiration of the term or the fulfillment of the condition, if the easement is temporary or conditional;
(5) By the renunciation of the owner of the dominant estate;
(6) By the redemption agreed upon between the owners of the dominant and servient estates.

Article 1094. An action to enforce the warranty among heirs must be brought within ten years from the date the right of action accrues.

Article 1134. Ownership and other real rights over immovable property are acquired by ordinary prescription through possession of ten years.

Article 1142. A mortgage action prescribes after ten years.

Article 1144. The following actions must be brought within ten years from the time the right of action accrues: (1) Upon a written contract; (2) Upon an obligation created by law; (3) Upon a judgment.

Article 1606. The right referred to in article 1601, in the absence of an express agreement, shall last four years from the date of the contract.

Should there be an agreement, the period cannot exceed ten years.

However, the vendor may still exercise the right to repurchase within thirty days from the time final judgment was rendered in a civil action on the basis that the contract was a true sale with right to repurchase.

Article 1723. The engineer or architect who drew up the plans and specifications for a building is liable for damages if within fifteen years from the completion of the structure, the same should collapse by reason of a defect in those plans and specifications, or due to the defects in the ground. The contractor is likewise responsible for the damages if the edifice falls, within the same period, on account of defects in the construction or the use of materials of inferior quality furnished by him, or due to any violation of the terms of the contract. If the engineer or architect supervises the construction, he shall be solidarily liable with the contractor.

Acceptance of the building, after completion, does not imply waiver of any of the cause of action by reason of any defect mentioned in the preceding paragraph.

The action must be brought within ten years following the collapse of the building.

Article 2071. The guarantor, even before having paid, may proceed against the principal debtor:

(1) When he is sued for the payment;
(2) In case of insolvency of the principal debtor;
(3) When the debtor has bound himself to relieve him from the guaranty within a specified period, and this period has expired;
(4) When the debt has become demandable, by reason of the expiration of the period for payment;
(5) After the lapse of ten years, when the principal obligation has no fixed period for its maturity, unless it be of such nature that it cannot be extinguished except within a period longer than ten years;
(6) If there are reasonable grounds to fear that the principal debtor intends to abscond;
(7) If the principal debtor is in imminent danger of becoming insolvent.

In all these cases, the action of the guarantor is to obtain release from the guaranty, or to demand a security that shall protect him from any proceedings by the creditor and from the danger of insolvency of the debtor.

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