Joint obligations

In joint obligations, the whole obligation, whether capable of division into equal parts or not, is to be paid or performed by several debtors (joint debtors) and/or demanded by several creditors (joint creditors). Each debtor is liable only for a proportional part of the debt, and each creditor is entitled only to a proportionate part of the credit. (Tolentino)

In the absence of express and indubitable terms characterizing the obligation as solidary, it is always presumed the the obligation is joint. It is well-known that solidary obligation cannot be lightly inferred; thus, it must be positively and clearly expressed.

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