Protections under the Civil Code

When the law provides for compensation to another for personal injuries, the law is protecting the person’s interest over his body. A person is entitled to the physical integrity of his or her body; if the integrity is violated or diminished, actual injury is suffered for which actual or compensatory damages are due and assessable. (G.R. No. 56487, October 21, 1991) However, although tort law is mainly concerned with providing compensation for personal injury and property damage caused by negligence, it also protects other interests such as reputation, personal freedom, enjoyment of property, and commercial interests. (A Dictionary of Law, Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 401) There are matters dealt with under the Civil Code (mandated by the interest to protect people) such as:

1. Physical injury (Article 32 and Article 2176);
2. Distress (Articles 2217-2220);
3. Reputation (Article 33);
4. Privacy (Article 26);
5. Malicious prosecution (Articles 20 and 21);
6. Nuisance (Articles 694-770; Article 2176);
7. Contractual rights (Article 1314); and
8. Fraud (Article 33).