Identity of parties, subject matter, cause of action

Res judicata refers to the rule that a final judgment or decree on the merits by a court of competent jurisdiction is conclusive of the rights of the parties or their privies in all later suits on all points and matters determined in the former suit. (Allied Banking Corporation v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 108089, 10 January 1994) The elements of res judicata are as follows: (1) the former judgment or order must be final; (2) the judgment or order must be on the merits; (3) it must have been rendered by a court having jurisdiction over the subject matter and the parties; and (4) there must be, between the first and the second action, identity of parties, of subject matter and cause of action. (Mirpuri v. Court of Appeals, 376 Phil. 628, 650)