3 kinds of estoppels

There are three kinds of estoppels, to wit:

(1) estoppel in pais;
(2) estoppel by deed; and
(3) estoppel by laches
Under the first kind, a person is considered in estoppel if by his conduct, representations, admissions or silence when he ought to speak out, whether intentionally or through culpable negligence, "causes another to believe certain facts to exist and such other rightfully relies and acts on such belief, as a consequence of which he would be prejudiced if the former is permitted to deny the existence of such facts." Under estoppel by deed, a party to a deed and his privies are precluded from denying any material fact stated in the deed as against the other party and his privies. Under estoppel by laches, an equitable estoppel, a person who has failed or neglected to assert a right for an unreasonable and unexplained length of time is presumed to have abandoned or otherwise declined to assert such right and cannot later on seek to enforce the same, to the prejudice of the other party, who has no notice or knowledge that the former would assert such rights and whose condition has so changed that the latter cannot, without injury or prejudice, be restored to his former state. (Co Chien v. Sta. Lucia Realty & Development, Inc., G.R. No. 162090, January 31, 2007.)