3 types of Philippine courts

Regular Courts

Courts authorized to engage in the general administration of justice.

These courts derive their powers from the Constitution. At the apex is the Supreme Court. Below the Supreme Court are three tiers of lower-level courts that initially decide controversies brought about by litigants in the first instance.

[1] Supreme Court;
[2] Court of Appeals;
[3] Regional Trial Court; and
[4] Municipal Trial Court.

Special Courts

Tribunals that have limited jurisdiction over certain types of cases or controversies that special courts can hear are limited only to those that are specifically provided in the special law creating such special courts. Outside of the specific cases expressly mentioned in the provisions of the statute creating the special court, these courts have no authority to exercise any powers of adjudication.
[1] Sandiganbayan
[2] Court of Tax Appeals
[3] Shari’a Court

Quasi-Judicial Agencies

Technically, judicial powers pertain to and are exercised only by courts. However, the Philippine system of government allows administrative agencies to exercise adjudicatory powers in certain types of controversies, particularly if same would facilitate the attainment of the objectives for which the administrative agency had been created. Unlike regular and special courts, quasi-courts do not possess judicial powers. Instead they possess and in fact, exercise what are termed as quasi-judicial powers.