When backwages, moral damages available in illegal dismissal cases; Equity

Backwages in general are granted on grounds of equity for earnings which a worker or employee has lost due to illegal dismissal. Upon the other hand, moral damages are recoverable only where the dismissal of the employee was attended by bad faith or constituted an act oppressive to labor or was done in a manner contrary to morals, good customs or public policy while exemplary damages may be awarded only if the dismissal was effected in a wanton, oppressive or malevolent manner. [G.R. No. 120038. December 23, 1996]