Understanding final and executory judgment

In Dacanay v. Yrastorza, Sr.,[1] the Supreme Court explained the concept of a final and executory judgment, thus:
Once a judgment attains finality, it becomes immutable and unalterable. A final and executory judgment may no longer be modified in any respect, even if the modification is meant to correct what is perceived to be an erroneous conclusion of fact or law and regardless of whether the modification is attempted to be made by the court rendering it or by the highest court of the land. This is the doctrine of finality of judgment. It is grounded on fundamental considerations of public policy and sound practice that, at the risk of occasional errors, the judgments or orders of courts must become final at some definite time fixed by law. Otherwise, there will be no end to litigations, thus negating the main role of courts of justice to assist in the enforcement of the rule of law and the maintenance of peace and order by settling justiciable controversies with finality.[2]

[1] 614 Phil. 216 (2009).

[2] Dacanay v. Yrastorza, Sr., supra, at 220-221.